Accountability (Stub)

Accountability is ensuring the someone is responsbile for the delivery of a particular element of the product or service.

Accounting systems (Stub)

An accounting system – also known as accounting software – is an application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and trial balance. It functions as an accounting information system. It may be developed in-house by the company or organization using it, may be purchased... Read more

Air Miles (Loyalty Scheme)

Air Miles programmes are a form of complementary currency that function as a brand loyalty scheme, in this case for frequent flyers. Air Miles are ‘points’ or ‘credits’ awarded by airlines or other companies to customers, which may be redeemed against flights or as discounts on purchases. Read more


Allmenda social business eG (formerly Talente Genossenschaft) is the name of the cooperative that manages the Talente Taauschkreis Voralberg in Austria. Read more

Alternative currencies (Stub)

An alternative currency (or private currency) is any currency used as an alternative to the dominant national or multinational currency systems. They are created by an individual, corporation, or organization, they can be created by national, state, or local governments, or they can arise naturally as people begin to use a certain commodity as a... Read more

Amsterdam East Municipality

Amsterdam Oost

General description City of Amsterdam District of Oost (East) is a multicultural area in a process of regeneration. With relatively more social housing and unemployment than in other parts of the city, there has been a concerted effort by local government in recent years to increase investment in social, urban and economic issues. These investments... Read more

Annette Riggs (Stub)

Role and Expertise Annette is currently the President of the International Reciprocal Trade Association’s (IRTA) Global Board, and also is the Founder and Managing Director of the Community Connect Trade Association in Colorado. She specializes in non-monetary, Business to Business (B2B) trade, also known as barter. Press/Media Contact–contact-1.asp

Arjo Klamer

Arjo Klamer

Arjo Klamer is professor of the Economics of Art and Culture at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and holds the world's only chair in the field of cultural economics. Prior to that and after acquiring his PhD at Duke University, he taught for many years at several universities in the US, including Wellesley College and George Washington University. Read more

Arthur Brock (Stub)

Role and Expertise Arthur is a multifaceted maestro and systems thinker extraordinaire. He has worked in organizational design, creating one of Denver’s first “flat” tech companies and a school run by its students.  He has created companies like “Geek Gene“, one of the very first B Corp companies.  He also has a special knack for... Read more

Asset (Stub)

In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce value and that is held to have positive economic value is considered an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also... Read more

b2b currencies (Stub)

A B2B currency is a complementary payment medium used by a network of businesses to exchange goods and services between themselves. Such currencies stimulate local patterns of production and exchange, give participating businesses a quick and cheap source of capital and reduce expenditure of standard currencies such as Pounds, Euros or Dollars. CCIA is working with TradeQoin,... Read more


Currency backing is the act of setting direct correspondence between the value of a currency to the value of another currency(ies) or commodity(ies). Read more

Bancor (Supranational Clearing Currency) (Stub)

The bancor was a supranational currency that John Maynard Keynes and E.F. Schumacher conceptualised in the years 1940-42 and which the United Kingdom proposed to introduce after the Second World War. This newly created supranational currency would then be used in international trade as a unit of account within a multilateral clearing system – the... Read more

Bank (Stub)

A financial institution licensed as a receiver of deposits. There are two types of banks: commercial/retail banks and investment banks.

Bank Credit (Stub)

Credit (from Latin credere translation. “to believe”) is the trust which allows one party to provideresources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead arranges either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date. The... Read more

Bank deposit (Stub)

Bank Deposit refers to money placed into a banking institution for safekeeping. Bank deposits are made to deposit accounts at a banking institution, such as savings accounts, checking accounts and money market accounts. The account holder has the right to withdraw any deposited funds, as set forth in the terms and conditions of the account. The... Read more

Barataria Exchange Project

The Barataria Exchange Project was a demonstration project with community currencies in four European contexts: Rural Scotland, Mayo County in Ireland, and the cities of Amsterdam and Madrid Read more


Barter is a system of exchange where goods and services are traded directly without the use of any medium of exchange such as money. Read more

Basket Currency

A basket currency refers to a currency whose value is determined by comparing and in some cases averaging the values of a group of other points of reference such as other currencies, commodities, services, or any combination thereof. Read more

Becky Booth

Becky Booth is Spice’s co-founder and current CEO. She has extensive community development experience and along with Geoff Thomas originated the principles of the now successful time credit systems that characterises Spices’ work. Spice is a social enterprise that develops time credits systems for communities and public services that engage and empower the many rather... Read more

Bernard Lietaer

Bernard Lietaer (Stub)

Bernard is the author of The Future of Money (translated in 18 languages), and is an international expert in the design and implementation of currency systems.   He has studied and worked in the field of money for more than 30 years in an unusually broad range of capacities including as a Central Banker, a... Read more

Bernard von NotHaus (Stub)

Bernard von NotHaus is the creator of the Liberty Dollar and co-founder of the Royal Hawaiian Mint Company.

Bitcoin (Protocol) (Stub)

Bitcoin is a software-based online payment system described by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 and introduced as open-source software in 2009. Payments are recorded in a public ledger using its own unit of account, which is also called bitcoin. Payments work peer-to-peer without a central repository or single administrator, which has led the US Treasury to... Read more

Bitcoin (Software) (Stub)

Select a template on the right. You can choose from the following templates:Currency Briefs, People, Orgs, Project, Software, Video. After selecting a template, press the button “Load Template”

Bob Swann

Bob was a close friend of economist E.F. Schumacher and inspired the Schumacher Center for a New Economics' work on local currencies and the commons. Read more


The term bonus refers to a premium paid to those who exchange an ordinary currency into a community currency. Typically, bonuses take the form of a gift, issued in the community currency, added on top of the amount exchanged. Read more

Business to business

Business-to-business (B2B) describes commercial transactions or activity that takes place between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Read more

C3 Uruguay (Stub)

The C3 Uruguay harbors a double accounting system in which both pesos as well as dollars can be administrated. This reflects the reality of the Uruguayan financial system where the use of dollar has a agreed place. Consequently members have an account in which the units have the same value as the national currency –... Read more

Camilo Ramada

Camilo Ramada is a specialist in developing mobile and digital payments as tools for local economic growth. Read more

Cap (Stub)

An upper limit (same as ceiling), or to set an upper limit. In finance, this is normally used with respect to interest rates. In the bond market, for instance, an issuer may cap the yield on a floating rate note (capped note). A bank may cap the interest rate charged on an adjustable rate mortgage.

Carbon Credit (Stub)

Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One carbon credit is equal to one tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. Greenhouse gas emissions... Read more

Cash (Stub)

In English vernacular cash refers to money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins. In bookkeeping and finance, cash refers to current assets comprising currency or currency equivalents that can be accessed immediately or near-immediately (as in the case of money market accounts). See more at: is a freely accessible internet directory containing bibliography records of all available community currency research. Read more


General description The software CC2 (Community Currency 2) is a customised, repackaged version of Cyclos 3.7 which is designed to: Allow small communities to get up and running quickly with the world’s leading alternative currency software Improve the look and feel of Cyclos and make it more intuitive for users Add additional reporting functionality (x... Read more

CCLite (Stub)

Cclite is a software package that helps to manage community currencies.

ccResearch Group (Stub)

“The complementary currency (cc) Research Group was (discontinued July 2017) a network of scientific researchers, academic and other, working on complementary currency systems and related types of appropriate and sustainable exchange systems. The purpose of the ccResearch Group is to provide peer support and collaboration across individuals, institutions and disciplines, aspiring to “open notebook science”... Read more

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Christian Gelleri

Christian Gelleri

Christian Gelleri is the initiator of the Chiemgauer, a regional currency (Regiogeld in German) in Bavaria, Germany. The success of Chiemgauer had a role in the proliferation of regional currencies throughout the country. Read more

Christoph Pfluger (Stub) magazine in CH, organised a big summit in CH in 80s out of which came the Talente CH, then AU


Circulation is what happens as a currency makes its way from one user to another, from that user to another, and so on. Read more

Clearing System

A system established to settle payments among banks or, in relation to the markets, to facilitate transactions such as the transfer of ownership of securities. In the markets, the clearing process is performed by a clearing house. In the banking sector, a bank is described as a clearing bank if it is a member bank... Read more

Closed loop payment systems (Stub)

A closed loop payment system allows users to spend their available units within a restricted network of other users without the option of converting the units into another currency. This is intended to keep wealth within the group and develop greater connections between members. SoNantes and the WIR Bank are examples of this type of... Read more


Co-production means delivering public services in an equal and reciprocal relationship between professionals, people using services, their families and their neighbours Read more


Collateral is defined as any specific property or asset offered to a creditor to ensure the effective settlement of a debt. Read more

Commercial Credit Circuit (C3) (Stub)

The Commercial Credit Circuit (C3) is a business-to-business system that is an improvement on the WIR, in the sense that the currency is convertible on demand into national currency. It is a powerful way to create employment because it injects working capital in networks of small and medium sized enterprises (SME), thereby creating employment (because SMEs... Read more