Accountability (Stub)

Accountability is ensuring the someone is responsbile for the delivery of a particular element of the product or service.

Accounting systems (Stub)

An accounting system – also known as accounting software – is an application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and trial balance. It functions as an accounting information system. It may be developed in-house by the company or organization using it, may be purchased... Read more

Alternative currencies (Stub)

An alternative currency (or private currency) is any currency used as an alternative to the dominant national or multinational currency systems. They are created by an individual, corporation, or organization, they can be created by national, state, or local governments, or they can arise naturally as people begin to use a certain commodity as a... Read more

Asset (Stub)

In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce value and that is held to have positive economic value is considered an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also... Read more

b2b currencies (Stub)

A B2B currency is a complementary payment medium used by a network of businesses to exchange goods and services between themselves. Such currencies stimulate local patterns of production and exchange, give participating businesses a quick and cheap source of capital and reduce expenditure of standard currencies such as Pounds, Euros or Dollars. CCIA is working with TradeQoin,... Read more


Currency backing is the act of setting direct correspondence between the value of a currency to the value of another currency(ies) or commodity(ies). Read more

Bank (Stub)

A financial institution licensed as a receiver of deposits. There are two types of banks: commercial/retail banks and investment banks.

Bank Credit (Stub)

Credit (from Latin credere translation. “to believe”) is the trust which allows one party to provideresources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead arranges either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date. The... Read more

Bank deposit (Stub)

Bank Deposit refers to money placed into a banking institution for safekeeping. Bank deposits are made to deposit accounts at a banking institution, such as savings accounts, checking accounts and money market accounts. The account holder has the right to withdraw any deposited funds, as set forth in the terms and conditions of the account. The... Read more


Barter is a system of exchange where goods and services are traded directly without the use of any medium of exchange such as money. Read more

Basket Currency

A basket currency refers to a currency whose value is determined by comparing and in some cases averaging the values of a group of other points of reference such as other currencies, commodities, services, or any combination thereof. Read more


The term bonus refers to a premium paid to those who exchange an ordinary currency into a community currency. Typically, bonuses take the form of a gift, issued in the community currency, added on top of the amount exchanged. Read more

Business to business

Business-to-business (B2B) describes commercial transactions or activity that takes place between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Read more

Cap (Stub)

An upper limit (same as ceiling), or to set an upper limit. In finance, this is normally used with respect to interest rates. In the bond market, for instance, an issuer may cap the yield on a floating rate note (capped note). A bank may cap the interest rate charged on an adjustable rate mortgage.

Carbon Credit (Stub)

Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One carbon credit is equal to one tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. Greenhouse gas emissions... Read more

Cash (Stub)

In English vernacular cash refers to money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins. In bookkeeping and finance, cash refers to current assets comprising currency or currency equivalents that can be accessed immediately or near-immediately (as in the case of money market accounts). See more at:    


Circulation is what happens as a currency makes its way from one user to another, from that user to another, and so on. Read more

Clearing System

A system established to settle payments among banks or, in relation to the markets, to facilitate transactions such as the transfer of ownership of securities. In the markets, the clearing process is performed by a clearing house. In the banking sector, a bank is described as a clearing bank if it is a member bank... Read more

Closed loop payment systems (Stub)

A closed loop payment system allows users to spend their available units within a restricted network of other users without the option of converting the units into another currency. This is intended to keep wealth within the group and develop greater connections between members. SoNantes and the WIR Bank are examples of this type of... Read more


Co-production means delivering public services in an equal and reciprocal relationship between professionals, people using services, their families and their neighbours Read more


Collateral is defined as any specific property or asset offered to a creditor to ensure the effective settlement of a debt. Read more

Commercial Credit Circuit (C3) (Stub)

The Commercial Credit Circuit (C3) is a business-to-business system that is an improvement on the WIR, in the sense that the currency is convertible on demand into national currency. It is a powerful way to create employment because it injects working capital in networks of small and medium sized enterprises (SME), thereby creating employment (because SMEs... Read more

Commodity (Stub)

The exact definition of the term commodity is specifically used to describe a class of goods for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, commodities are produced exclusively for profit-generating purposes within a capitalist market economy – or, in technical terms, for their quantitative and... Read more

Community bank (Stub)

A community bank is a depository institution that is typically locally owned and operated. Community banks tend to focus on the needs of the businesses and families where the bank holds branches and offices. Lending decisions are made by people who understand the local needs of families, businesses and farmers. Employees often reside within the... Read more

Community Currency

The term Community Currency (CC) is often used synonymously with Complementary Currency but indicates but points to the subset of CCs where user or community engagement is central to the initiation, governance or impact of the currency system. Read more

Community Currency Typologies

[[MAKE External Links into Footnotes]] Several typologies have been proposed, but none has been succeeded to capture and explain all phenomena referred to by academics, practitioners, entrepreneurs and sociologists. In 2004 Siglinde Bode proposed a classification mainly based on a ‘business approach where money is a medium of exchange between businesses and customers  and it... Read more

Community Exchange System

Community Exchange System, often referred to as CES, is a global digital complementary trading network that operates without money, as it is commonly understood. Read more

Community Interest Company (CIC)

A Community Interest Company (CIC) is a type of company structure introduced by the United Kingdom government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004. Read more

Complementary Currency


A Complementary Currency (CC) describes all currencies that are not legal tender and thus circulates as supplement to ordinary money. This terminology comprises a large array of exchange systems, scrips or currencies designed to operate in combination with ordinary money or other CCs. CCs can be valued, exchanged or related to ordinary money or may likewise act as a unit of account of their own and have their own pricing mechanism. Read more


Convertibility refers to whether or not a currency can be directly exchanged for either another currency (e.g., a complementary currency for a national currency, or one national currency for another) or  a commodity (e.g., gold). Whether or not complementary currencies incorporate this feature depends on what they want to achieve. For example, the Brixton Pound... Read more


A co-operative or cooperative is an association of people who voluntarily join forces to meet the common needs and aspirations of its members, share ownership and make decisions democratically Read more


“Counter-cyclical” refers to any policy, instrument or phenomenon which is inversely proportional to fluctuations in the size of the overall economy. That is, when the economy as a whole expands, the counter-cyclical elements contracts; when the economy as a whole contracts, the counter-cyclical elements expands. This functions to stabilise the economy over time by partially... Read more


Counterfeiting refers to the production of imitation currency for the purpose of fraud. In other words, it is the practice of making illegal copies of banknotes, coins, government bonds or other means of payments (e.g. vouchers, bank cards). Read more


Credit is a term used when an agreement is entered into between parties where resources are made available to one party without immediate reimbursement by the other. Read more

Credit Line

A Credit Limit or Credit Line refers to the maximum amount of credit a financial institution or other lender is willing to extend to a debtor. Credit limits are typically determined based on information contained in the client’s, or the client’s credit rating and payment history. Read more

Crowdfunding (Stub)

Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet. One early-stage equity expert described it as “the practice of raising funds from two or more people over the internet towards a common Service, Project, Product, Investment, Cause, and Experience or SPPICE.”... Read more

Crowdsourcing (Stub)

Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. See more at:    

Cryptography (Stub)

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties


In the context of community currencies (CC), currency does not refer to the different forms of money used as legal tender in different countries – foreign currencies – but to a much wider field of units that fulfill all or some functions of money or even express and facilitate forms of exchange that are not catered for by money as we know it. Read more

Currency Design

A currency’s “design” may refer to either a) the physical or graphical representation of the currency, most commonly the visual aesthetics of a bill or voucher, or to b) the system’s configuration in terms of for whom the system is designed, to what social, environmental, and/or commercial benefits, its issuance strategy Read more

Currency Model

A model is the core of a given design criteria, mechanics, and related functionality which comprise a system’s theoretical construct, or economic model. Read more

Currency proposal (Stub)

Currency proposals are ideas for currencies that have been communicated publically but have yet to be implemented.

Currency System

A ‘system’ is an individual currency-based project, such as the WIR, the Lewes Pound, the Ergo, or Ithaca Hours. Read more

Debit (Stub)

A debit is an entry recording a sum owed, listed on the left-hand side or column of an account. It also refers to the action of removing money from a customer’s account.