Air Miles (Loyalty Scheme)

Air Miles programmes are a form of complementary currency that function as a brand loyalty scheme, in this case for frequent flyers. Air Miles are ‘points’ or ‘credits’ awarded by airlines or other companies to customers, which may be redeemed against flights or as discounts on purchases. Read more

b2b currencies (Stub)

A B2B currency is a complementary payment medium used by a network of businesses to exchange goods and services between themselves. Such currencies stimulate local patterns of production and exchange, give participating businesses a quick and cheap source of capital and reduce expenditure of standard currencies such as Pounds, Euros or Dollars. CCIA is working with TradeQoin,... Read more

Commodity Currency (Stub)

A commodity currency is a name given to currencies of countries which depend heavily on the export of certain raw materials for income. These countries are typically developing countries, e.g. countries likeBurundi, Tanzania, Papua New Guinea; but also include developed countries like Canada and Australia. See more at:    

Community Currency Typologies

[[MAKE External Links into Footnotes]] Several typologies have been proposed, but none has been succeeded to capture and explain all phenomena referred to by academics, practitioners, entrepreneurs and sociologists. In 2004 Siglinde Bode proposed a classification mainly based on a ‘business approach where money is a medium of exchange between businesses and customers  and it... Read more

Community Exchange System

Community Exchange System, often referred to as CES, is a global digital complementary trading network that operates without money, as it is commonly understood. Read more

Digital currency

General description Digital currency is a form of currency or medium of exchange that is electronically created and stored (i.e., distinct from physical, such as banknotes and coins). Virtual currencies are a type of digital currency, meaning that all virtual currencies are digital, but the converse is incorrect. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are another type of digital currency, but... Read more

Energy currency

Energy Currencies are currencies valued by units of energy production. By linking to environmentally sustainable energy sources (solar, wind, hydro, etc), energy currencies seek both to boost local economies and contribute to a transition towards a more ecologically friendly economy. See more at: Literature: Energising Money. An Introduction to Energy Currencies and Accounting. nef report written... Read more

Fiat Currency

A fiat currency is a currency that has no backing, no intrinsic value and is accepted at its face value on the basis of trust and/or because it is designated as legal tender. All sovereign currencies, national currencies, and reserve currencies currently in use are fiat currencies. Read more

Fureai Kippu

Fureai Kippu

The Fureai Kippu (literally ‘ticket for a caring relationship’) refers to a variety of Japanese national schemes and networks of mutual support dedicated to providing elderly care through the exchange of a complementary currency Read more

Legal Backed Tender Currency

A “legal backed tender currency” refers to a complimentary currency that is guaranteed to be redeemable for legal tender.  The Brixton Pound is an example of this type of currency.

Legal Backed Tender Currency

Legal backed tender currency refers to a complementary currency which is guaranteed to be exchangeable for legal tender, whether on a one-to-one value basis or with the imposition of a malus. Making a complementary currency exchangeable for legal tender in this manner is commonly done in order to increase public trust and belief in the... Read more


Local Exchange Trading Systems or Local Employment and Trading Systems (LETS) are ‘social’ mutual credit currencies where members trade skills, services and resources with each other by using credits issued by members themselves. Read more

MCL (Currency (Stub)

MCL – or “Miracle Coin” – is a trader-to-trader digital currency, facilitating the flow of goods and services between those in the network. Find out more at:    

MLC Monnaie Locale Complémentaire (Stub)

MLC is a French term for local currencies, similar to the UK Transition Currencies, or the German Regiogeld. See:

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Mutual Credit


Mutual credit is a form of complementary currency that is created when a transaction takes place between traders who have previously agreed to use it as a medium of exchange. Read more


Regiogeld is a German word used to describe a variety of regional currency initiatives in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. Read more

Scriptural Money

Scriptural Money, analagous to private bank money, refers to funds held in current accounts at a commercial bank, where they are recorded as money-units as part of a banks’ record system. Read more

Stamp Scrip


Stamp scrip was a group of complementary currencies launched during the financial and economic crisis of the 1930’s mainly in Germany, Austria and United States. Read more

Stamped money (Stub)

Stamped money refers to a currency which incorporates the feature of “demurrage”, or negative interest. It is also referred to as scrip money – read more here.


Tauschring or Tauschkreis refer to versions of Time Banks and LETS adopted in German speaking countries. Read more



Time Banking is the community currency concept in which time, typically hours, are used as unit of account. Read more

Trade Exchange

General description A trade exchange is a generic currency type for business-to-business (B2B) transactions that take place digitally in a mutual credit system. This currency system facilitates the exchange of goods or services between trading partners with the use of a currency recognised and accepted exclusively between trading partners themselves. A trade exchange is an organization serving as... Read more

Transition Currencies

The term ‘Transition Currencies’ describes a group of community currencies typically launched through Transition Town Initiatives in various towns and cities across the United Kingdom Read more

Virtual currency

General description The term “virtual currency” was defined in 2012 by the European Central Bank as “a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community”. The US Department of Treasury in 2013 defined it as “a medium of exchange that... Read more