Commodity (Stub)

The exact definition of the term commodity is specifically used to describe a class of goods for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, commodities are produced exclusively for profit-generating purposes within a capitalist market economy – or, in technical terms, for their quantitative and... Read more

Commodity Currency (Stub)

A commodity currency is a name given to currencies of countries which depend heavily on the export of certain raw materials for income. These countries are typically developing countries, e.g. countries likeBurundi, Tanzania, Papua New Guinea; but also include developed countries like Canada and Australia. See more at:    

Community bank (Stub)

A community bank is a depository institution that is typically locally owned and operated. Community banks tend to focus on the needs of the businesses and families where the bank holds branches and offices. Lending decisions are made by people who understand the local needs of families, businesses and farmers. Employees often reside within the... Read more

Community Currencies in Action (CCIA)

ccia_logo final_KLEIN

The Community Currencies in Action project (CCIA) is a transnational partnership working to develop and deliver community currency demonstrations in several member states across the North West of Europe Read more

Community Currency

The term Community Currency (CC) is often used synonymously with Complementary Currency but indicates but points to the subset of CCs where user or community engagement is central to the initiation, governance or impact of the currency system. Read more

Community Currency Typologies

[[MAKE External Links into Footnotes]] Several typologies have been proposed, but none has been succeeded to capture and explain all phenomena referred to by academics, practitioners, entrepreneurs and sociologists. In 2004 Siglinde Bode proposed a classification mainly based on a ‘business approach where money is a medium of exchange between businesses and customers  and it... Read more

Community Exchange System

Community Exchange System, often referred to as CES, is a global digital complementary trading network that operates without money, as it is commonly understood. Read more

Community Forge

Community Forge is a non-profit association in Geneva, Switzerland that designs, develops and provides complementary currency systems and tools in order to help communities become more resilient. Read more

Community Interest Company (CIC)

A Community Interest Company (CIC) is a type of company structure introduced by the United Kingdom government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004. Read more

Complementary Currencies for Sustainability (GICC) (Stub)

New research to study the growth and diffusion of complementary currencies (new forms of money) around the world, and produce policy and practice lessons to harness these grassroots innovations for sustainability. This two year research project is led by Gill Seyfang at UEA and funded by the Leverhulme Trust. It aims to investigate grassroots innovations... Read more

Complementary Currency


A Complementary Currency (CC) describes all currencies that are not legal tender and thus circulates as supplement to ordinary money. This terminology comprises a large array of exchange systems, scrips or currencies designed to operate in combination with ordinary money or other CCs. CCs can be valued, exchanged or related to ordinary money or may likewise act as a unit of account of their own and have their own pricing mechanism. Read more


Convertibility refers to whether or not a currency can be directly exchanged for either another currency (e.g., a complementary currency for a national currency, or one national currency for another) or  a commodity (e.g., gold). Whether or not complementary currencies incorporate this feature depends on what they want to achieve. For example, the Brixton Pound... Read more


A co-operative or cooperative is an association of people who voluntarily join forces to meet the common needs and aspirations of its members, share ownership and make decisions democratically Read more


“Counter-cyclical” refers to any policy, instrument or phenomenon which is inversely proportional to fluctuations in the size of the overall economy. That is, when the economy as a whole expands, the counter-cyclical elements contracts; when the economy as a whole contracts, the counter-cyclical elements expands. This functions to stabilise the economy over time by partially... Read more


Counterfeiting refers to the production of imitation currency for the purpose of fraud. In other words, it is the practice of making illegal copies of banknotes, coins, government bonds or other means of payments (e.g. vouchers, bank cards). Read more


Credit is a term used when an agreement is entered into between parties where resources are made available to one party without immediate reimbursement by the other. Read more

Credit Line

A Credit Limit or Credit Line refers to the maximum amount of credit a financial institution or other lender is willing to extend to a debtor. Credit limits are typically determined based on information contained in the client’s, or the client’s credit rating and payment history. Read more

Crédit Municipal de Nantes

credit municipal de nantes

General Description Crédit Municipal de Nantes is a public financial institution offering credit, loans and mutual savings schemes to individuals and groups in city of Nantes, North West France. As well as offering financial services to those excluded from the mainstream banking sector, as a long established, publically owned enterprise with an economic and social... Read more

Crowdfunding (Stub)

Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet. One early-stage equity expert described it as “the practice of raising funds from two or more people over the internet towards a common Service, Project, Product, Investment, Cause, and Experience or SPPICE.”... Read more

Crowdsourcing (Stub)

Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. See more at:    

Cryptography (Stub)

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties


In the context of community currencies (CC), currency does not refer to the different forms of money used as legal tender in different countries – foreign currencies – but to a much wider field of units that fulfill all or some functions of money or even express and facilitate forms of exchange that are not catered for by money as we know it. Read more

Currency Design

A currency’s “design” may refer to either a) the physical or graphical representation of the currency, most commonly the visual aesthetics of a bill or voucher, or to b) the system’s configuration in terms of for whom the system is designed, to what social, environmental, and/or commercial benefits, its issuance strategy Read more

Currency Model

A model is the core of a given design criteria, mechanics, and related functionality which comprise a system’s theoretical construct, or economic model. Read more

Currency proposal (Stub)

Currency proposals are ideas for currencies that have been communicated publically but have yet to be implemented.

Currency System

A ‘system’ is an individual currency-based project, such as the WIR, the Lewes Pound, the Ergo, or Ithaca Hours. Read more



Cyclos is an open source online banking software used by microfinance institutions, local banks (in developing countries) and complementary currency systems like LETS, Barter networks and Time banks. Read more

David Boyle (Stub)

David Courtney Boyle, born 1958, is a British author and journalist who writes mainly about history and new ideas in “economics”, money, business and culture.

David Weston (Stub)

David Weston is a money reform activist in Britain and Canada. More info:

Debit (Stub)

A debit is an entry recording a sum owed, listed on the left-hand side or column of an account. It also refers to the action of removing money from a customer’s account.

Debt (Stub)

A debt generally refers to money owed by one party, the debtor, to a second party, the creditor. Debt is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest. See more at:    

Debtor (Stub)

A debtor is an entity that owes a debt to another entity. The entity may be an individual, a firm, a government, a company or other legal person. Thecounterparty is called a creditor. When the counterpart of this debt arrangement is a bank, the debtor is more often referred to as a borrower. See more... Read more



Demurrage is a built-in reduction over time of the nominal value of a currency. By implementing demurrage, a currency issuer intends to speed up the currency’s circulation by levying regular taxes on holders of the assets in order to discourage hoarding. Read more


Denomination is a description of a currency amount, assigned to means of payment such as coins, banknotes, gift cards or digital payment systems. Read more

DigiPay4Growth (Stub)

Select a template on the right. You can choose from the following templates:Currency Briefs, People, Orgs, Project, Software, Video. After selecting a template, press the button “Load Template”

Digital currency

General description Digital currency is a form of currency or medium of exchange that is electronically created and stored (i.e., distinct from physical, such as banknotes and coins). Virtual currencies are a type of digital currency, meaning that all virtual currencies are digital, but the converse is incorrect. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are another type of digital currency, but... Read more


Disintermediation is a term that denotes the removal of intermediaries in a supply chain from the originator to the consumer. An important impetus for this is the potential drop in the cost of servicing customers. Read more


A donation is the transfer of something of value from one entity to another, like money, services or goods, typically for charitable purposes, without any expectation of a reciprocal obligation. Read more

Drupal MC Project (Stub)

Drupal is a free and open-source content-management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License.It is used as a back-end framework for at least 2.1% of all Web sites worldwide ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political, and government sites including and It is also used for knowledge management... Read more

E-Money directive

General description The Electronic Money Directive of the EU focuses on modernising EU rules on electronic money, especially bringing the prudential regime for electronic money institutions, into line with the requirements for payment institutions in the Payment Services Directive . The new E-Money Directive (2009/110/EC) (EMD) aims to: enable new, innovative and secure electronic money services to be designed... Read more

E. F. Schumacher

Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker, statistician and economist in Britain, serving as Chief Economic Advisor to the UK National Coal Board for two decades. His ideas became popularized in much of the English-speaking world during the 1970s. Read more

Edgar Cahn (Stub)

Edgar S. Cahn, JD, PhD is a distinguished legal professor, former counsel and speech writer to Robert F. Kennedy, and the creator of Time Banking. A key figure for the complementary currency movement, Cahn grounded the discipline in certain core values, such as solidarity, equality and respect.   Read More:

Edgar Kampers

Edgar Kampers

Edgar is co-founder and executive co-director of Qoin where he focuses on policy strategy, monetary design, legal advice and compliancy, fundraising, as well as monitoring and research. Read more