SamenDoen Logo_color

  Introduction SamenDoen is a community currency in Bergen op Zoom en Tholen in The Netherlands. At the heart of this project is a fully electronic currency. Transactions can be carried out through payment terminals and near field communication (NFC) cards, a mobile app, or online. SamenDoen incentivises people with points to consume nearby, actively... Read more


Within the CCIA project, Qoin was responsible for developing the next generation of community currency software: QoinWare. The focus of this project was on creating an optimal user experience, using both web and smartphone interfaces. QoinWare is currently used by the CCIA pilot currencies TradeQoin, SoNantes and Brixton Pound. Download the QoinWare packages as used for TradeQoin... Read more

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New Guide Book: People Powered Money

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As the conventional monetary system foundered following the financial crisis in 2008, interest in new types of money and how they can be used positively within our society has surged. Projects like Bitcoin have hit the headlines. Less noted, however, are the communities around the world which have started to experiment with their own currencies... Read more

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Legal Backed Tender Currency

Legal backed tender currency refers to a complementary currency which is guaranteed to be exchangeable for legal tender, whether on a one-to-one value basis or with the imposition of a malus. Making a complementary currency exchangeable for legal tender in this manner is commonly done in order to increase public trust and belief in the... Read more


The TEM (Τοπική Εναλλακτική Μονάδα – “Alternative Monetary Unit”) is a LETS-based currency in the Greek city of Volos. Emerging in response to the country’s economic crisis, the TEM gained over 800 members in just the first few months of operation. The credits are pegged in value to the Euro and can be earned and spent... Read more

Satoshi Nakamoto

Satoshi Nakamoto is a person or group of people who created the Bitcoin protocol and reference software, Bitcoin Core. In 2008, Nakamoto published a paper on The Cryptography Mailing list at describing the Bitcoin digital currency. In 2009, he released the first Bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the Bitcoin currency,... Read more

Payment Services Directive

The Directive on Payment Services (PSD) provides the legal foundation for the creation of an EU-wide single market for payments. The PSD aims at establishing a modern and comprehensive set of rules applicable to all payment services in the European Union. The target is to make cross-border payments as easy, efficient and secure as ‘national’... Read more

Legal Backed Tender Currency

A “legal backed tender currency” refers to a complimentary currency that is guaranteed to be redeemable for legal tender.  The Brixton Pound is an example of this type of currency.


The Krugerrand is a South African 22-karat gold coin, available in denominations of half, quarter and a tenth of an ounce of gold. First minted in 1967 to help market South African Gold, the Krugerrand has since become the most popular choice for global investors wanting to purchase gold bullion. Unusually, the Krugerrand has the... Read more


“Counter-cyclical” refers to any policy, instrument or phenomenon which is inversely proportional to fluctuations in the size of the overall economy. That is, when the economy as a whole expands, the counter-cyclical elements contracts; when the economy as a whole contracts, the counter-cyclical elements expands. This functions to stabilise the economy over time by partially... Read more


Convertibility refers to whether or not a currency can be directly exchanged for either another currency (e.g., a complementary currency for a national currency, or one national currency for another) or  a commodity (e.g., gold). Whether or not complementary currencies incorporate this feature depends on what they want to achieve. For example, the Brixton Pound... Read more

Clearing System

A system established to settle payments among banks or, in relation to the markets, to facilitate transactions such as the transfer of ownership of securities. In the markets, the clearing process is performed by a clearing house. In the banking sector, a bank is described as a clearing bank if it is a member bank... Read more

LEDDA Token System

The token is the proposed local currency of the Local Economic Direct Democracy Association (LEDDA) framework, under development by the LEDDA Partnership. The LEDDA framework, or synonymously, LEDDA economic direct democracy, is a local, parallel economic system that synthesizes a host of local, open, and participatory approaches to make them scalable, efficient, secure, stable, and... Read more

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Digital currency

General description Digital currency is a form of currency or medium of exchange that is electronically created and stored (i.e., distinct from physical, such as banknotes and coins). Virtual currencies are a type of digital currency, meaning that all virtual currencies are digital, but the converse is incorrect. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are another type of digital currency, but... Read more



General description QoinWare is an IT platform for community currencies developed and implemented by Qoin as part of the CCIA project. This software makes use of Cyclos as a transaction engine, but enhances it in terms of user experience and functionalities. The first live implementation of QoinWare is TradeQoin, the business-to-business trade platform running in the Netherlands. All of the digital currencies that... Read more

Echo (Economy of Hours)


Echo is a timebank based in  East London and focusing on business-to-business exchanges. It was conceived as part of the Olympic Park (re)development process and now offers a platform for business, organizations and individuals to trade skills and time-denominated assets. It also offers its online platform to local timebanks. Read more on

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Regio im Oberland (Stub)

One of Germany’s regional currencies (regiogeld), operating in Oberland. Until we add more content to this article, for more information visit their website.

Nectar Points (Stub)

Loyalty points given to consumers when they spend money at Sainsbury, one of the largest retailer in the UK. More info:

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MLC Monnaie Locale Complémentaire (Stub)

MLC is a French term for local currencies, similar to the UK Transition Currencies, or the German Regiogeld. See:

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ccResearch Group (Stub)

“The complementary currency (cc) Research Group was (discontinued July 2017) a network of scientific researchers, academic and other, working on complementary currency systems and related types of appropriate and sustainable exchange systems. The purpose of the ccResearch Group is to provide peer support and collaboration across individuals, institutions and disciplines, aspiring to “open notebook science”... Read more

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Exeter Constant (Stub)

A nondevaluating, “inflation proof” currency, the Exeter Constant was created in the 1970’s by economist Ralph Borsodi. Seeing inflation as a central problem of Keynesian economics and international trade, Borsodi envisioned a global currency whose value would remain “constant” in relation to the real economy of production and commodity exchange. The Exeter Constant’s value was... Read more

Value (Stub)

Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent. It is generally measured relative to units of currency, and the interpretation is therefore “what is the maximum amount of money a specific actor is willing and able to pay for the good or service”? Note that... Read more

Currency proposal (Stub)

Currency proposals are ideas for currencies that have been communicated publically but have yet to be implemented.

Hoarding (Stub)

In economics, “hoarding” refers to the accumulation and holding of a resource, usually with the expectation that it will be more profitable if released to the market at a latter date. Hoarding often occurs because of fear, accurate or otherwise, of imminent societal collapse of resource scarcity. For example – as has often been the case... Read more

Accounting systems (Stub)

An accounting system – also known as accounting software – is an application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and trial balance. It functions as an accounting information system. It may be developed in-house by the company or organization using it, may be purchased... Read more

Commodity (Stub)

The exact definition of the term commodity is specifically used to describe a class of goods for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, commodities are produced exclusively for profit-generating purposes within a capitalist market economy – or, in technical terms, for their quantitative and... Read more

Time Dollars (Stub)

In America the time dollar is the fundamental unit of exchange in a time bank, equal to one hour of a person’s labor. More info:  

Loan (Stub)

A loan is when someone who has title to something agrees to offer it to someone else to use for a given period of time.

Wales Institute for Community Currencies (Stub)

WICC promotes four core values and practice principles of Time Banking: – All people are treated as assets – everyone has something to contribute – The work people do to maintain communities is valued equally as essential work – People practice give and take – reciprocity or mutualism – People create active social networks or... Read more

Complementary Currencies for Sustainability (GICC) (Stub)

New research to study the growth and diffusion of complementary currencies (new forms of money) around the world, and produce policy and practice lessons to harness these grassroots innovations for sustainability. This two year research project is led by Gill Seyfang at UEA and funded by the Leverhulme Trust. It aims to investigate grassroots innovations... Read more

GEM (Stub)

GEM is a digital “commodity-based” or “basket” currency. Like other currencies of this type, it is designed to be non-inflationary – i.e., because the value of the currency is directly tied to the aggregate value of a number of “core” commodities, it never loses value in relation to commodity prices. More info:

First International Conference on Complementary and Community Currency systems held in Lyon (Stub)

The First International Conference on Complementary and Community Currencies was held in Lyon in 2012. The conference brought together academics, government officials, policy makers and practitioners to discuss the benefits of complementary and community currencies, as well as the challenges in their successful implementation. Both the first and following conferences were organised by the International... Read more

Second International Conference on Complementary Currency Systems held in The Hague (Stub)

The Second International Conference on Complementary and Community Currencies was held in Lyon in 2013. The conference brought together academics, government officials, policy makers and practitioners to discuss the benefits of complementary and community currencies, as well as the challenges in their successful implementation. The conference was organised by the International Institute of Social Studies... Read more

Alternative currencies (Stub)

An alternative currency (or private currency) is any currency used as an alternative to the dominant national or multinational currency systems. They are created by an individual, corporation, or organization, they can be created by national, state, or local governments, or they can arise naturally as people begin to use a certain commodity as a... Read more

full reserve banking (Stub)

Full-reserve banking, also known as 100% reserve banking, refers to an alternative to fractional reserve banking in which banks are required to keep the full amount of each depositor’s funds in cash, ready for immediate withdrawal on demand.

Schumacher Center for a New Economics

Schumancher Center for a New Economics , based in Massachusets in the USA, has a mission to educate the public about an economics that supports both people and the planet. We believe that a fair and sustainable economy is possible and that citizens working for the common interest can build systems to achieve it. We... Read more

Grassroots Innovations (Stub)

Grassroots innovations are community-led solutions for sustainability. Visit their website for news and updates from a series of research projects on grassroots innovations, based at the University of East Anglia and University of Sussex. Their research aims to better understand how these innovations develop and grow, and how they can be harnessed to meet sustainability... Read more

Closed loop payment systems (Stub)

A closed loop payment system allows users to spend their available units within a restricted network of other users without the option of converting the units into another currency. This is intended to keep wealth within the group and develop greater connections between members. SoNantes and the WIR Bank are examples of this type of... Read more

Ludwig Schuster

Ludwig Schuster works as strategy consultant at in Berlin, Germany. He is specialised in Complementary Currencies since 2005, co-founder and manager of the interdisciplinary think-tank Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgruppe Nachhaltiges Geld (Sustainable Money Research Group), former board member of the German Regiogeld Association and co-author of the nef report “energising money”. Ludwig graduated as engineer in... Read more

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Eirebank (Stub)

Éirebank is a member-owned bank which issues a new currency, the Éire, to compensate for the inadequacy of the national currency. It is a platform that allows us to create a better society for ourselves and for the next generation.

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The Social Trade Organisation (STRO) is a Dutch NGO active worldwide whose goal is to “develop and promote sustainable economic models for a world full of development opportunities, high quality of life, cultural and environmental diversity, based on sustainable production and consumption”. Established in 1970, it is committed to finding solutions to environmental issues from... Read more